I think it’s fair to say that few books have ever inspired as much controversy as J.K. Rowling’s hugely popular “Harry Potter” fantasy series. With more than 400 million copies sold, the books have impacted popular culture in a massive way. And, of course, they’ve attracted praise and scorn from virtually all sides, including an almost unprecedented amount of criticism from the conservative Christian community.
I’ve previously avoided discussing this issue directly for a variety of reasons. As a Christian, I don’t want to cause anyone to stumble by what I say, nor do I want to simply stir up dissent. However, considering that the franchise has almost run its course, and sentiments have cooled somewhat, I feel it’s time to take an in-depth look at some of the themes and worldview elements in this oft-disputed series.
Five years ago, I began reading the series suspiciously, expecting to encounter a barrage of subversive, anti-Christian propaganda. I’d read plenty of books about the “occultism” of the series, and heard all the anti-“Potter” arguments. I was pleasantly surprised to find out that I’d been mistaken: the books were adventure stories in the style of Roald Dahl, with a layer of fairy-tale magic added on. I devoured the first six volumes, read the seventh book as soon as it came out, and moved on to other things. This past summer, I took the time to revisit the series from a more critical standpoint. The first time I read the books, I did so primarily for entertainment. The second time around, I was specifically looking for themes – and more specifically, I intended to write this commentary. This will necessarily be a fairly long discussion – after a brief summary of the series, this commentary will explore the three predominant motifs in the seven books before responding to a few of the foremost anti-“Potter” objections.
I’ll come right out with the thesis for this discussion: I do not believe the “Harry Potter” series is an apologetic for witchcraft, nor do I believe it should be shunned by Christians. While it isn’t an allegory on the level of the “Narnia” books, it contains some deeply Christian themes. Rather than being blindly condemned and censored, it should be read and analyzed thoughtfully.
(Note: In order to evaluate the complex themes of this series, the following commentary contains spoilers)
The “Harry Potter” series is the story of the eponymous hero, orphaned at birth and left in the care of the cruel Dursley family of “Muggles” (non-magical people). On his eleventh birthday, Harry receives a letter from Hogwarts, a school for young wizards and witches, and promptly enters a world of wonder and mystery. At Hogwarts, he meets his two closest friends – Ron Weasley and Hermione Granger – and begins studying magic. It soon becomes clear that the death of Harry’s parents was no accident: the evil Dark Lord Voldemort murdered them. Voldemort also attempted to kill Harry, but his attack rebounded on himself, severely crippling Voldemort’s power. The first few books of the series develop the characters and set the stage for Book 4, in which Voldemort returns to power and regains a corporeal body. Aided by his fellow evil wizards (“Death Eaters”), Voldemort begins a campaign to kill Harry Potter, the only one who may stand a chance of defeating him. The last three volumes deal with Harry’s increasingly desperate battle against Voldemort, and his fight to remain steadfast even as the world spins into chaos around him.
It’s a fairly simple story arc, but the intricate web of plots and subplots grips the reader’s attention. There’s a reason people lined up for hours to snag copies of each subsequent book – the stories are well-written and increasingly dramatic.
Throughout the course of the series, there are three fundamental concepts that drive the story: the power of love, man’s struggle against death, and the relationship between Harry and his mentor Dumbledore. Each of these deserves thorough evaluation.
1. The Power of Love
One of the most recurring themes in the “Harry Potter” series is the sacrificial love of Harry’s mother Lily, who died to protect her infant son. Voldemort’s deadliest weapon, the “Killing Curse,” rebounded when he used it against Harry, shattering the Dark Lord’s power. In the final pages of Book 1, Voldemort cannot physically touch Harry due to the power of his mother’s love in him. Later in the series (after the Dark Lord’s return to power), Voldemort attempts to “possess” Harry (yes, in the biblical sense) but cannot due to the contrast between Harry’s soul and his own. Harry’s life is founded on his love for others, while Voldemort’s life is centered around hatred. Headmaster Dumbledore observes at one point: “That which Voldemort does not value, he takes no trouble to understand. Of house-elves and children’s tales, of love, loyalty, and innocence, Voldemort knows and understands nothing. Nothing. That they all have a power beyond his own, a power beyond the reach of any magic, is a truth he has never grasped.”
On a less complex level, love also repeatedly motivates acts of self-sacrifice on the parts of the main characters. Primary characters are willing to (and do) suffer unbelievable loss for one another, even giving up their lives in order to do the right thing. The love between family members is celebrated as beautiful and noble, never something to be mocked and sneered at.
However, the true significance of this theme does not emerge until Book 7.
Throughout the book, Harry, Ron and Hermione have successfully located and destroyed the six Horcruxes, magical objects bearing fragments of Voldemort’s essence. (While the Horcruxes exist, Voldemort cannot be truly killed.) However, it soon becomes clear that, in fact, a seventh Horcrux exists: Harry Potter himself. The curse that originally failed to kill Harry struck Voldemort instead, blasting away a piece of Voldemort’s tainted essence…which in turn bonded to Harry. While Harry lives, Voldemort cannot truly die.
The situation may be summarized thusly: Harry, a bearer of evil that is not his own, must suffer death at Voldemort’s hands.
The symbolism is almost explicit. While Harry is certainly not Christ himself, he is the books’ “Christ figure”, willingly enduring a sacrificial death in order to save others from evil. He chooses to lay down his own life to end the evil caused by another. Harry even observes: “I don’t want anyone else to try to help. It’s got to be like this. It’s got to be me.” While this motif is certainly common even in non-Christian literature, it gains special significance when viewed in light of another prevailing theme (to be discussed later).
This theme of sacrificial love applies on another level as well, through the character of Severus Snape. The often-irritable Potions teacher at Hogwarts, Snape frequently appears to be antagonistic towards Harry throughout the series (although, interestingly, he often intervenes to protect Harry during the darkest moments). In the closing pages of Book 6, Snape appears to be allied with Voldemort, lending credence to Harry’s longtime suspicions.
However, Book 7 finally provides the full story. Snape, a longtime admirer of Lily (Harry’s mother), was forced to watch as she married a man Snape deemed reckless and immature. To make matters worse, Lily asked Snape to watch over their newborn son in the event of her death. Since that point, Snape’s relationship with Harry has been a constant source of pain…yet Snape chooses to sacrifice his own feelings and defend a child he believes should have been his. This subplot is one of the most moving elements of the entire series.
2. Man’s Struggle Against Death
The “Harry Potter” series is, in many ways, a parable about the danger of desiring immortality. Voldemort is obsessed with the concept of living forever, no matter what the cost. This dark desire leads him down the path of villainy, transforming him from a disturbed orphan boy into the living incarnation of evil. He attains a sort of pseudo-immortality by constructing the aforementioned Horcruxes – but in order to do so, he must take a human life for every Horcrux he creates. Dumbledore sharply critiques this empty attitude towards life: “As much money and life as you could want! The two things most human beings would choose above all – the trouble is, humans do have a knack of choosing precisely those things that are worst for them.”
In contrast, Harry and his friends are unafraid of their own mortality. When Harry confronts Voldemort and suffers death at the Dark Lord’s hands, he awakens to find himself in a limbo-like state between life and death. There, he sees the mutilated soul of Lord Voldemort – an affirmation that souls are ultimately held accountable for their actions, and that the material world is but the precursor to something more. Death is seen not as an end, but rather as a beginning. As Dumbledore puts it: “It is the unknown we fear when we look upon death and darkness, nothing more.”
But for Harry, death isn’t the end. To complete the Christ metaphor, Harry is resurrected from the dead, defeats Voldemort once and for all, and saves the magical world. His death leads to the salvation of countless others.
3. Harry’s Relationship with Dumbledore
(Note: I am not going to explore the hot-button issue of whether Dumbledore is or is not homosexual. The issue was never raised or alluded to in the novels themselves; thus, for the purposes of this commentary, this will not be under consideration.)
I must confess that I missed the significance of this theme the first time I read the series. However, this is perhaps the most interesting and uniquely symbolic element of the entire seven-book saga. To offer some background, Professor Albus Dumbledore is the headmaster of Hogwarts School, and fulfills the role of a father to Harry. He helps Harry wage his battle against Voldemort, providing counseling and insight throughout the series. Their relationship can be analyzed on two distinct levels: as a metaphor for the relationship between God the Father and God the Son, and as a metaphor for the relationship between God and His people.
Throughout the course of Book 7, Harry struggles with the quest that Dumbledore has left him: finding and destroying Voldemort’s Horcruxes. In the same way that Jesus pleaded with God the Father in the Garden of Gethsemane to “take this cup from [Him]”, Harry struggles to understand the “cup” that Dumbledore has left him to bear. During his journey to face Voldemort and die at the Dark Lord’s hands (a sequence clearly inspired by the Garden of Gethsemane), Harry never questions Dumbledore’s authority or his command, but sincerely wrestles with issues of grief and loss. It isn’t a perfect analogy – for instance, it’s not as strong as the Aslan/Emperor-over-the-Sea allegory found in the “Narnia” books. However, the way in which Harry fulfills the task left him by Dumbledore is, to an extent, analogous to the way in which Jesus obeyed His Father’s will.
On another level, Book 7 also serves as a metaphor for the relationship between God and His people. After Dumbledore’s untimely “death” in Book 6, a series of rumors begin to fly regarding Dumbledore, questioning his authority and his wisdom. These rumors are strikingly similar to arguments leveled by those antagonistic toward Christianity. Harry must decide whom he trusts: Dumbledore, who is no longer directly there with him, or those who criticize him.
In total, these are the three themes that struck me most upon a rereading of the series. Careful readers may note that I’ve frequently referred to the seventh volume of the series in exploring these issues; however, these ideas are developed throughout the series as a whole. Book 7 successfully unites all these elements into a dramatic, triumphant finale. This isn’t to say that there aren’t other themes in the books. There are countless other elements worthy of analysis – race and class discrimination, civil disobedience, and the corrupting effect of power, just to name a few – but these three are perhaps the standouts from a Christian worldview standpoint.
Of course, there have been plenty of criticisms of the “Harry Potter” series as well. Some of the particularly prevalent arguments deserve honest and respectful consideration.
Perhaps the most well-known argument runs something along the lines of “Harry Potter promotes real-world occult practices.” Unfortunately, this issue has turned into a media circus, thanks to unfortunate publications like this one: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/fd/Nervous_Witch_20.png. While certainly well-intended, claims like this are factually inaccurate and completely misrepresent the books. For starters, the only “real-world” occult practice employed by “good characters” is divination (reading tea leaves and crystal balls in an attempt to predict the future). However, Rowling neatly sidesteps genuine controversy by satirizing the concept of divination altogether, portraying the teacher as a dreamy hippie whose predictions are notoriously inaccurate.
The magic employed in “Harry Potter” is purely instrumental. There’s no conjuring up of spirits, no altars to pagan gods, no communion with demons – Potter-magic functions along the lines of “point wand, say word.” The spells aren’t cribbed from pagan rituals – for the most part, they’re pseudo-Latinized phrases (“Expelliarmus” blasts an opponent’s wand out of his/her hand, “Incendio” summons fire, “Reparo” fixes broken objects).
I can appreciate the concerns of individuals who point to the Bible’s condemnation of witchcraft as sin. However, “Harry Potter” is set in a fantastical world where magic is not linked to demonic forces. “Harry Potter” magic is similar to a genetic mutation – some possess it, others do not. It operates according to certain rules, just like gravity, and there are both good and bad ways to employ it. (Interestingly, magic operates in a way that could theoretically be tested according to the scientific method!) There is honestly no moral difference between the magic in “Harry Potter” and the powers possessed by Superman or Spider-Man.
Valid concerns have also been raised regarding the darkness and violence of the series, especially the later books. These are certainly legitimate: the books get progressively scarier and as the series goes on, although the ending is ultimately redemptive. In all honesty, advertisers erred in marketing this series to a preteen demographic: although the early volumes are filled with childish innocence, the story matures along with its protagonist. There are certainly moments in the “Harry Potter” series disturbing enough to put the books off-limits for sensitive readers.
Unfortunately, legitimate disagreements with the content of “Harry Potter” have often been obscured by a deluge of inaccurate information. Well-intentioned individuals like Laura Mallory (who has engaged in an anti-“Harry Potter” crusade for years, despite not actually having read the books) do not further the cause of Christianity by their protests. What’s more, disputes over the “Harry Potter” series have led to other, more subversive material being overlooked. Notably, Philip Pullman’s atheistic fantasy series, “His Dark Materials (which directly attacks Christianity) was published alongside “Harry Potter”, and went largely unnoticed by Christian critics.
Clearly, the question of “Harry Potter” is a complicated one. I will make an open request to all individuals who are still concerned about “Harry Potter” after reading this review: please do not argue that “Harry Potter” is evil/Wiccan/Satanic, unless you have actually read the books for yourself. There is nothing in the series that will corrupt a mature Christian, and it borders on slander to make harsh accusations without knowing the facts. Criticizing something one knows little or nothing about is unwise.
The book of Acts tells the story of Paul using the Athenians’ altar to an “Unknown God” as a means of proclaiming the truth of the Gospel. As a Christian, I choose to recognize that the “Harry Potter” series may be a modern “altar to an unknown God” – a means by which we can share our faith with the world. As the film series nears its completion, there will likely be many questions about the themes in the final installment. By recognizing the Christian themes woven into the plot, the “Harry Potter” series can become a tool for cultural evangelism.
I am not going to make a blanket statement that “everyone should read these books.” However, I will recommend that mature Christian fantasy readers (generally over the age of ten or eleven) will find the series powerful, exciting, moving, and spiritually resonant. I envision reading the books aloud to my children someday – once they’re old enough to understand them, and mature enough to handle them.
OVERALL VERDICT: 9.5/10
A young-adult series for the ages. Will likely be remembered alongside “Narnia” and “Lord of the Rings.”
In this paper, we would like to discuss magic as portrayed in J.k Rowling Harry Potter. We want to also analyze some magic scenes and attempt to discuss their significance in the story. Harry Potter has never been the star of a Quidditch team, scoring points while riding a broom far above the ground. All he knows is a miserable life with the Dursleys, his terrible aunt and uncle, and their son, Dudley, a great swollen spoiled bully. Harry’s room is a tiny closet at the foot of the stairs, and he has not had a birthday party in eleven years. But all that is about to change when a mysterious letter arrives by an owl messenger. The letter is an invitation to an incredible place that Harry will never forget. For it is Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry where Harry finds not only friends, sport, and magic in everything from classes to meal, but a great destiny that has been waiting for him.
1.1. The meaning of Magic.
According to the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, magic is defined as the secret of appearing to make things happen by saying special words or doing special things. Jared Miller defined magic as any means of control or knowledge, which makes use of supernatural beings or forces. He went further to say that :
…magic must be defined as the use of impersonal occult (read: hidden or secret) forces in order to obtain knowledge or power. Such is the well-known transference of symbolic cultures (popularly described as “voodoo”-objective transference of symbolic action), and the phenomenon of magical words, objects, or substances in the ancient and medieval western word
Despite the above definitions, it must be said that magic is a complex term to explain. In order to discuss the meaning of magic, one has to take into consideration the culture and society in which one lives. This is because what may be considered magic in certain societies, may be seen as sciences in another communities, or even religion. The holy bible condemns magic but the Jews considered Jesus Christ as a magician and “wrong sort of person” to perform miracles, although the people accounted Him a prophet. It is said that Jesus Christ changed water into wine, walked on water, died and rose again just to name but these examples. Christians would consider this as miracle. However, not every body is a Christian, and not every body believes in God. From the above explanation, one can see that it would not be wrong for a Pagan to consider Jesus Christ as a magician.
If we take sciences as example, we would see that scientist do organ transplantation, plastic surgeries, paternity test, wireless communication and digital photography. In some primitive societies, these scientific developments may be considered as magic. In the pre-colonial era, when the European went to Africa for Christianity and colonization, they presented some of the African chiefs with mirrors, matches, sunglasses and radios. Some of these uneducated Africans considered these presents as magic like so many others worldwide. At this point, we would like to give two quotations that seem to support this view.
Arthur. C. Clarke. “Any smoothly functioning technology gives the appearances of magic”
Jacque Ellul. “ Magic may even be the origin of techniques”
In order to give a synopsis of the relationship between sciences and magic, we would like to quote Alan Jacobs:
In the thinking of most modern people, there should be two histories here: (implied history of magic and of sciences) after all, are not magic and experimental sciences opposite?. Is not magic governed by superstition, ignorance, and wishful thinking, while experimental sciences is rigorous, self-critical, and methodological? While it may be true that the two paths have diverged to the point that they no longer have any point of contact, for much of their existence –and this is Lynn Thorndike’s chief point-they constituted a single path with a single history. For both magic and experimental sciences are means of controlling and directing our natural environment ( and people insofar as they are part of that environment)
From the above discussion, we would now look at magic as illustrated in Harry Potter by J.k Rowling.
2. Some scenes of magic in Harry Potter
Magic is one of the major themes in Harry Potter and the philosopher’s stone. In this novel, Rowling presents the reader with two worlds, the magic world as different from ours that is called (in the books) the Muggle world. However, one can see traces of similarities between the two worlds. We would now analyze some episodes in which magic is portrayed.
The description of Quidditch is one of the interesting examples of magic in Harry Potter.
“So what’s Quidditch?”
“It’s our sport. Wizard sport. It’s like football in the Muggle world” (Rowling 2000:90)
Rowling describes Quidditch in details, as a game, which shares some characteristics with fooball but is played in the air, on broomsticks, and with four balls. It is in this game that we see Harry as a talented and skillful player. His skill brought him fame and makes him more popular.
Another example of sport in the magic world as portrayed by Rowling is wizard chess (Rowling 2000:215). It is like normal chess, except that the figures are alife, which make it a lot like directing troops in battle. Here we see Ron teaching Harry. This incident shows the relationship between Ron and Harry and brought to light the act that, although Harry is born as a talented magician, he can still learn from his friend.
In other areas in the novel, we see a tape measuring on its own (Rowling 2000:95), a hat singing, a pudding that disappears, Hermione saying “Wingardium Leviosa” to make a feather rise off the desk and hover about four feet above their heads (Rowling 2000:187). This incident portrays Hermione as a witty pupil and brings to light the normal relationship among students, when Ron was angry as Hermione wanted to correct him. Professor Flitwick’s appraisal to Hermonie’s success is a normal thing any teacher would do, if a student excels. This shows that pupils life at Hogwarts is not totally different from school life in the modern (muggle) world.
Harry sees his late parents in a mysterious mirrow, and the magic hat at Hogwarts that determines the house in which each student belongs (This hat knows that the Weaselys-Ron’s family members have studied in Hogwarts ). These are all examples of magic in Rowling’s novel. We would now discuss the significance of magic in Harry Potter.
3.Significance of magic in Harry Potter.
The novel Harry Potter points to the possibility that beyond , and around, and beside the material world in which we live, there is also one of magic, wonder, and miracle. The two worlds are not entirely separate, but impinge upon one another, and travel is possible between them in both directions as seen in King’s Cross platform 913/4 amongst others:
…they were boarding the Hogwarts Express, talking and laughing as the country-side became greener and tidier; eating Bertie Bott’s Every-Flavour Beans as they sped past Muggle towns; pulling off their wizard robes and putting on jackets and coats…(Rowling 2000:330)
Harry Potter describes a great struggle between the forces of evil and good with the promise that good is the stronger and in the end will triumph.
Magic is presented in Rowling’s novel as a craft that can be learned, and refine, where gifts are unevenly distributed, just like in our world. In relation to this, one can say that magic is not a false discipline but rather a means of controlling the physical world as experimental sciences like physics and chemistry. Magic simply works and works as reliable in the hands of a trained wizard as technology that makes planes to fly, fridges to chill the air, robbers to move, and even tablets to heal diseases.
Rowling uses magic to create an alternative world from the one in which we are living. Magic is often fun, surprising and exciting, and potentially dangerous when used wrongly like modern technologies. The magic in Harry Potter expands the imagination of children. There are several newspapers drawing, online sketches, poems and short stories written by children to express their views of Harry Potter.
4. Harry Potter, Magic, and Public Opinion.
The general public responded differently to Harry Potter, some positively, others negatively and the bone of contention is magic as illustrated in the novel.
4.1. Positive views
Harry Potter is a success story in the publishing and film industries. It has become a best seller and has sold over 30 millions copies worldwide. It has also been translated into many languages (about 42). It should be noted that Harry Potter has won many awards.
Some parents claim that Harry Potter has motivated their children to start reading, children who hardly read before. As said before, the magic in Harry Potter makes some children be creative and expands their imagination. The book is also entertaining and a great deal of fun. Harry Potter, like any other children’s novel, helps to increase the vocabulary of children, but this is worth mentioning because Rowling’s novel is one of the most widely read novel in the history of children’s literature.
One of the most quoted supporters of the Potter books is Christianity Today columnist Charles Colson, who, in his November 2 Breakpoint radio broadcast, noted that Harry and his friends "develop courage, loyalty, and a willingness to sacrifice for one another—even at the risk of their lives. Not bad lessons in a self-centered world." Colson dismisses the magic and sorcery in the books as "purely mechanical, as opposed to occultic. That is, Harry and his friends cast spells, read crystal balls, and turn themselves into animals—but they don't make contact with a supernatural world…. [It's not] the kind of real-life witchcraft the Bible condemns."
(Olsen, Ted 2000:2)
4.2. Negative views
People who hold a negative view about Harry Potter are mostly Christians. As said earlier, the bible condemns magic. These critics, some who have not even read the book claim that Harry Potter promotes witchcraft and magic, which they consider evil. They discourage Christian children from reading the book, and some newspapers even reported that copies of Harry Potter were burnt in certain parts of the world. One parent noted, “I’m not saying Rowling is a tool for the devil, but I am saying neopaganism is just saturating the culture,” Furthermore, one critic explains:
. … Author J. K. Rowling admits that some Harry Potter readers have convinced themselves that Harry's world is real. Rowling has said she gets letters all the time, desperate letters addressed to Hogwarts, begging to be allowed to attend Harry's school. When fantasy produces that kind of reaction, we are naïve to assume that witchcraft is merely a harmless, fun literary device…
(Komschlies, Jacqui 2000:2)
In order to support their view against magic in Harry Potter, the Crusader magazine wrote:
I think the Harry Potter books are an attempt by Wiccans to recruit young children into the practices of witchcraft. Most other fantasy books for children transport them to other worlds (Chronicles of Narnia comes to mind) where magic happens. These books take place right here in this world and make children believe they can do magic in this world. The Bible tells us that engaging in witchcraft is a sin. I don't think these books are a good idea for Christian kids. If they like the Harry Potter books, get them the Chronicles of Narnia by C.S. Lewis instead.
(Eaton, Daniel 2000:2)
We are of the opinion that J.K Rowling’s Harry Potter is a good piece of arts, not only to the intended audience-children but also to adults. The craft and skill in which Rowling details magic in the story is one of the reasons that makes the book a great success. We represent the view that Harry Potter has done more good to both the literary and non-literary worlds. Parents and critics should not be concerned only with the negative aspect of magic in life, but also other negative influences in the society like pornography on television, internet and books, violent films, video and computer games, novels and work of arts that promote xenophobia. These factors may also have a negative influence or effects on children. Some of the criticism of Harry Potter is bias and unfounded.
The publishing and film industries have made money from the book. A reasonable amount of the population has also been entertained. Children are more excited and interested in reading. Magic in the story is fun, but this fun is understood differently, by people from different cultures, and religious beliefs.
Rowling,J.k.2000.Harry Potter and the philosopher’s stone. London: Bloomsbury Publishing plc.
Wehmeier,Sally(Ed):2000.Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of current English. Oxford,
Oxford university Press
ERNSTING,Kate.Is Harry Potter’s magig kid-friendly? .Online in Internet www.credo.com
Komschlies,Jacqui.2000. The Perils of Harry Potter Literary device or not, witchcraft is real—and dangerous.Online in Internet www.ChristianityToday.com.
Olsen,Ted.2000. Opinion Roundup: Positive About Potter Despite what you've heard, Christian leaders like the children's books .Online in Internet www.ChristianityToday.com.
Kjos, Berit. Bewitched by Harry Potter.Online in Internet http://www.crossroad.to
Gray, Paul.1999 .”Wild About Harry”. Time Magazine (September 20, 1999); page 72.
Jacob,Alan.2000. Harry Potter’s magic. Online in Internet http://www.firstthings.com/ftissues/ft0001/reviews/jacobs.html
Eaton,Daniel. The Harry Potter Controversy:Does Harry Potter promote Witchcraft or the Occult? Online in Internet http://www.atlantaapologist.org/harrypotter.html
Montenegro , Marcel.2000. HARRY POTTER, SORCERY AND FANTASY . Online in Internet http://cana.userworld.com/cana_harrypotter.html
Regardie,Israel.1969. Magic in East and West.Dallas: Helios
Regardie,Israel.1969. The Art of Magic.Dallas: Helios
Miller,Jared. The meaning of magic. Online in internet www.credenda.org/14-2tohu.php
Doniger ,Wendy.2000.Spot the source: Harry Potter explained .London:The London Review of Books.(also online in internet http://books.guardian.co.uk/lrb/articles/0,6109,135352,00.html)
Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania(ed)1998.New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures. New York:Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York,INC. page 261
Other online resources on magic in Harry Potter
 Related terms include: Black magic: The arts of doing tricks that seem impossible in order to entertain people. Wizard: A man who is believed to have magic powers Sorcerer: A man with magic powers, who is helped by evil spirits Miracle: An act or event that does not follow the laws of nature and is believed to be caused by God Good magic-use to do good things like heal diseases,save people from difficult situation,etc Bad magic-use to harm people, cause destruction, famine, suffering etc Wehmeier,Sally(Ed):2000.Oxford Advanced learner’s Dictionary of current English. Oxford, Oxford university Press
 There shall not be found among you anyone who ...practices witchcraft, or a soothsayer, or one who interprets omens, or a sorcerer, or one who conjures spells, or a medium, or a spiritist, or one who calls up the dead. For all who do these things are an abomination to the LORD, and because of these abominations the LORD your God drives them out from before you. You shall be blameless before the LORD your God. For these nations which you will dispossess listened to soothsayers and diviners; but as for you, the LORD your God has not appointed such for you Deut. 18:10-14
 Alan Jacob is Professor of English at Wheaton College, USA (Jacobs,Alen, 2000:38)
 The Guardian children’s fiction Award 1997 ABBY AWARD, American Booksellers Association,1999 10 Bremer Beste 1999 Carnegie Medal 1997 FCBG Children’s Book Award 1997,1998, Scottish Arts Council- children’s Book Award 1999,2001, etc
 In a newspaper article that we read, one critic claims that Harry Potter has made wizards to recruit young children into sorcerery or witchcraft, but he failed to give evidence. We think that some of such statements may be mere imagination of some people who dislike the book and wish to campaigne against it.