J. R. R. Tolkien, Beowulf and the Critics. Ed. Michael D. C. Drout
Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, Volume 248
Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2002
xix + 461 pp. ISBN 0-86698-290-6
Review by Tom Sharp
On 25 November 1936, Tolkien delivered Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics to the British Academy, and it was published the next year in the Academy's proceedings. The essay was a redaction of lectures that Tolkien wrote between 1933 and 1936, Beowulf and the Critics. In 1996, Drout discovered a manuscript containing two drafts of the lectures lurking in a box at the Bodleian Library at Oxford. Drouts book is a comparison of the two versions, which reflect Tolkiens development of thought and writing process that culminated in what is generally considered a groundbreaking essay in Beowulf studies.
Previous critics disregarded the monsters, Grendel and his mother and the dragon, because they teach little about history, pagan Teutonic culture, or Nordic religion. But Tolkien taught that the monsters were integral to Beowulf; indeed, he argued, if you discard them and read the poem as a historical epic or tragedy, the remainder appears cheap and disorganized. Further, Tolkien taught that reading Beowulf as a literary work was immensely rewarding: "Beowulf is in fact so interesting as poetry, in places poetry so powerful, that any historical value it may possess must always be of secondary importance" (84). The previous critics of Beowulf, Tolkien taught us, didn't treat the poem as a poem.
The two versions, labeled A and B, are described by Christopher Tolkien as an earlier and expanded version, respectively, of Beowulf and the Critics. Drout explains that the two versions together illustrate the development of Tolkien's ideas, and that comparing them allows readers a glimpse into the workings of a great mind engaged in a struggle with a complex problem" (xi). The texts are accompanied by Drouts extensive explanatory notes that present the background, source material and general thrust of Tolkiens arguments, textual notes that reproduce Tolkiens emendations and modifications which Drout clarifies with editorial commentary where needed, and an appendix that presents Tolkiens notes and jottings where legible. Overall, Drout provides a rich context in which to read Tolkien's work.
Drout fully describes Tolkien's manuscripts for the benefit of scholars who will not have direct access to the originals. In "Description of the Manuscript," he tells how the manuscript came to the Bodleian Library and describes its present condition, organization, dating, and numbering. The manuscript is not written on acid-free paper and has already deteriorated significantly. It consists of 198 folios written in Tolkien's hand in pen and pencil. Folios 1-71 contain version A of the lectures. Folios 72-91 contain "assorted notes and jottings," not all decipherable but most incorporated into the text in some form. Folios 91-198 contain version B of the lectures. The text is mainly written on one side of the page, except for brief notes that served Tolkien as reminders of ideas that he would work into the text. The verso of folio 95 "is a page of paradigms and exercises in Gothic" (xvi).
"Introduction: Seeds, Soil, and Northern Sky" is a brief overview of Tolkien's contribution to Anglo-Saxon studies, the history of the text including the publication of the "Monsters" essay, Tolkien's sources, and summarizes the overall thesis of the Critics lectures. Drout shares an understanding of Tolkien's motivating devotion to his roots as an Englishman, pointing out that "an English racial identity is made through participation in two related traditions: physical occupation of England . . . and participation in the English speech community" (14). Drout explains the common tie between the works of Tolkien the philologist and Tolkien the novelist; as both, Tolkien remains connected with a tradition, a history, and a culture tied to England, to his country. Just as the Beowulf poet synthesized ancient material with Christian teaching, Tolkien forged "a synthetic mythical 'history' to explain certain perceived truths about the ancestry of his people" (19).
As Drout explains, For the purposes of this study . . . the most telling changes Tolkien made to Critics as he modified it into Monsters can be found in the famous allegory of the tower. This is the most frequently cited passage of Monsters and is, as critics have recognized, essential for understanding Tolkiens thoughts about Beowulf (8). In the first draft, the man found a mass of old stone in an unused patch, and made of it a rock-garden to set off commonplace flowers. Although his friends all said this garden is most interesting, they tore it apart looking for hidden inscriptions on the stones or coal deposits under the soil, criticized its jumble and confusion, and faulted the man for being tiresome and having no sense of proportion.
In the published version of the allegory, a man used an accumulation of old stone, part of an older hall, to build a tower from which he could view the sea. The man had already used some of the stone in building the house in which he actually lived, not far from the old house of his fathers. Although his friends considered the tower most interesting, they pushed the tower over to look for hidden carvings and inscriptions, or to discover whence the mans distant forefathers had obtained their building material, or they forgot about the stones looking for a deposit of coal under them. They criticized the muddle of stones, and even his descendents considered the man odd to have build a nonsensical tower rather than restoring the old house.
The function of allegory, of course, is to point elsewhere, and Drout cites Tom Shippeys interpretation that begins with the man as the Beowulf-poet, the friends as Beowulf scholars, and the tower as Beowulf, and ends with Tolkien being the only one who understood the poem because of his English descent, native to that tongue and land (9). While Drout feels this may be an overstatement, he agrees that Tolkiens ethnic identification, including language, is integral to Tolkiens work. He sees the rock garden recalling the image of the Englishman as gardener and associated with the middle-class countryman like Tolkien himself. Drout suggests that the rock garden, read as stories of the monster in Beowulf, may represent vestiges of folk-tale commonplaces . . . transformed by the poet in some particularly English fashion (11). Moving to the tower, he views the stones as building blocks composed of ancient and inherited materials used by Tolkien as sub-creator; the tower became the mythology of Middle-earth and, as Drout rightly observes earlier, the single best way to understand and appreciate Tolkiens fiction is to become literate in medieval literature. He believes that nothing would please Tolkien more than for readers of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings to be moved to read Beowulf to see what in the poem inspired Tolkien for so many years (xiii).
We can longer attend Tolkien's lectures and most of us cannot take the classes taught by Prof. Drout, but we should be grateful for this fine substitute. The volume preserves the deteriorating manuscript for future study, which would take any lover of Beowulf to his or her histories, glossaries, grammars, and the works of other scholars, and, even more important and rewarding, back to the poem itself.
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Though it is often viewed both as the archetypal Anglo-Saxon literary work and as a cornerstone of modern literature, Beowulf has a peculiar history that complicates both its historical and its canonical position in English literature. By the time the story of Beowulf was composed by an unknown Anglo-Saxon poet around 700 a.d., much of its material had been in circulation in oral narrative for many years. The Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian peoples had invaded the island of Britain and settled there several hundred years earlier, bringing with them several closely related Germanic languages that would evolve into Old English. Elements of the Beowulf story—including its setting and characters—date back to the period before the migration. The action of the poem takes place around 500 a.d. Many of the characters in the poem—the Swedish and Danish royal family members, for example—correspond to actual historical figures. Originally pagan warriors, the Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian invaders experienced a large-scale conversion to Christianity at the end of the sixth century. Though still an old pagan story, Beowulf thus came to be told by a Christian poet. The Beowulf poet is often at pains to attribute Christian thoughts and motives to his characters, who frequently behave in distinctly un-Christian ways. The Beowulf that we read today is therefore probably quite unlike the Beowulf with which the first Anglo-Saxon audiences were familiar. The element of religious tension is quite common in Christian Anglo-Saxon writings (The Dream of the Rood, for example), but the combination of a pagan story with a Christian narrator is fairly unusual. The plot of the poem concerns Scandinavian culture, but much of the poem’s narrative intervention reveals that the poet’s culture was somewhat different from that of his ancestors, and that of his characters as well.
The world that Beowulf depicts and the heroic code of honor that defines much of the story is a relic of pre–Anglo-Saxon culture. The story is set in Scandinavia, before the migration. Though it is a traditional story—part of a Germanic oral tradition—the poem as we have it is thought to be the work of a single poet. It was composed in England (not in Scandinavia) and is historical in its perspective, recording the values and culture of a bygone era. Many of those values, including the heroic code, were still operative to some degree in when the poem was written. These values had evolved to some extent in the intervening centuries and were continuing to change. In the Scandinavian world of the story, tiny tribes of people rally around strong kings, who protect their people from danger—especially from confrontations with other tribes. The warrior culture that results from this early feudal arrangement is extremely important, both to the story and to our understanding of Saxon civilization. Strong kings demand bravery and loyalty from their warriors, whom they repay with treasures won in war. Mead-halls such as Heorot in Beowulf were places where warriors would gather in the presence of their lord to drink, boast, tell stories, and receive gifts. Although these mead-halls offered sanctuary, the early Middle Ages were a dangerous time, and the paranoid sense of foreboding and doom that runs throughout Beowulf evidences the constant fear of invasion that plagued Scandinavian society.
Only a single manuscript of Beowulf survived the Anglo-Saxon era. For many centuries, the manuscript was all but forgotten, and, in the 1700s, it was nearly destroyed in a fire. It was not until the nineteenth century that widespread interest in the document emerged among scholars and translators of Old English. For the first hundred years of Beowulf’s prominence, interest in the poem was primarily historical—the text was viewed as a source of information about the Anglo-Saxon era. It was not until 1936, when the Oxford scholar J. R. R. Tolkien (who later wrote The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, works heavily influenced by Beowulf) published a groundbreaking paper entitled “Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics” that the manuscript gained recognition as a serious work of art.
Beowulf is now widely taught and is often presented as the first important work of English literature, creating the impression that Beowulf is in some way the source of the English canon. But because it was not widely read until the 1800s and not widely regarded as an important artwork until the 1900s, Beowulf has had little direct impact on the development of English poetry. In fact, Chaucer, Shakespeare, Marlowe, Pope, Shelley, Keats, and most other important English writers before the 1930s had little or no knowledge of the epic. It was not until the mid-to-late twentieth century that Beowulf began to influence writers, and, since then, it has had a marked impact on the work of many important novelists and poets, including W. H. Auden, Geoffrey Hill, Ted Hughes, and Seamus Heaney, the 1995 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature, whose recent translation of the epic is the edition used for this SparkNote.
Old English Poetry
Beowulf is often referred to as the first important work of literature in English, even though it was written in Old English, an ancient form of the language that slowly evolved into the English now spoken. Compared to modern English, Old English is heavily Germanic, with little influence from Latin or French. As English history developed, after the French Normans conquered the Anglo-Saxons in 1066, Old English was gradually broadened by offerings from those languages. Thus modern English is derived from a number of sources. As a result, its vocabulary is rich with synonyms. The word kingly, for instance, descends from the Anglo-Saxon word cyning, meaning “king,” while the synonym royal comes from a French word and the synonymregal from a Latin word.
Fortunately, most students encountering Beowulf read it in a form translated into modern English. Still, a familiarity with the rudiments of Anglo-Saxon poetry enables a deeper understanding of the Beowulf text. Old English poetry is highly formal, but its form is quite unlike anything in modern English. Each line of Old English poetry is divided into two halves, separated by a caesura, or pause, and is often represented by a gap on the page, as the following example demonstrates:
Setton him to heafdon hilde-randas. . . .
Because Anglo-Saxon poetry existed in oral tradition long before it was written down, the verse form contains complicated rules for alliteration designed to help scops, or poets, remember the many thousands of lines they were required to know by heart. Each of the two halves of an Anglo-Saxon line contains two stressed syllables, and an alliterative pattern must be carried over across the caesura. Any of the stressed syllables may alliterate except the last syllable; so the first and second syllables may alliterate with the third together, or the first and third may alliterate alone, or the second and third may alliterate alone. For instance:
Lade ne letton. Leoht eastan com.
Lade, letton, leoht, and eastan are the four stressed words.
In addition to these rules, Old English poetry often features a distinctive set of rhetorical devices. The most common of these is the kenning, used throughout Beowulf. A kenning is a short metaphorical description of a thing used in place of the thing’s name; thus a ship might be called a “sea-rider,” or a king a “ring-giver.” Some translations employ kennings almost as frequently as they appear in the original. Others moderate the use of kennings in deference to a modern sensibility. But the Old English version of the epic is full of them, and they are perhaps the most important rhetorical device present in Old English poetry.