Imirce Essay Format

You can find inspiration from other projects related to higher education and refugees. We have selected some of them in this page.

TheErasmus+ Project Results Platform gives you information on all projects funded under the Erasmus+ programme in the field of education, training, youth and sport. Erasmus+ funds capacity building projects related to refugees:

Erasmus+ also funds strategic partnerships related to refugees:

  • Teaching Partnership Addressed to Refugees' Instances Strengthening ("PARIS"): three Universities and three non-profit making organizations prepare innovative tools addressed to university students learning outcomes: a learning platform made up by thematic sections addressing refugees issues; the recognition of a joint curriculum from the three universities involved; a guideline on assertive communication.
  • Strategic Partnership to promote core academic values and welcome refugees and threatened academics to European campuses: the objectives are to improve the capacity of European universities to assist refugees and threatened academics and to promote greater respect for academic freedom and greater protection for higher education values in all international higher education partnerships.
  • Counselling for Refugees and Migrant Integration into the labour market – development of Courses for Higher Education and Public Employment Services: this project aims to tackle the challenge of integrating refugees and migrants into the labour market by bringing together experienced partners from countries that are amongst the most affected - Germany, Italy, Sweden, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
  • REFUGIUM: building shelter cities and a new welcoming culture. Links between European universities and schools in Human Rights: this project is based on the belief that higher education institutions can play an important role in the integration of migrants and refugees through their own educational activities. The proposed actions are aimed at promoting a better understanding of the causes, consequences and current state of forced displacement in Europe and prevent racist and xenophobic outbreaks among European adolescents and youth.
  • Supporting university community pathways for refugees-migrants: The SUCRE project focuses on the response of the universities to the academic needs of immigrant/refugees students and to the formation of manuals of field testing (handbook of good practices), through the development of training modules addressed to volunteers.
  • Massive Open Online courses eNhancing LInguistic and Transversal skills for social inclusion and Employability: with the help of credit-bearing MOOCs, students would be able to begin introducing themselves to their studies at their own pace, without needing to enrol the institutions, knowing that this credit would be eventually recognised towards their final degree, once they are able to access Higher Education formally. Alternatively, MOOCs could help refugees top-up specific skills and directly enter the labour market.
  • inHERE: this project collects and analyses good practice examples of higher education approaches and initiatives in wide range of urgent situations, focusing on refugees and displaced students, facilitating the identification of successful patterns of integration which have the potential to be easily scaled up (e.g. teaching local language and local culture, voluntary host services, tailored counselling services,…) and facilitate peer and networked communication on lessons learned.
  • Inclusion of immigrants in academic education in the countries of the Visegrad Group: the main objective of this project is to prepare higher education sector in the Visegrad Group countries for inclusion of immigrants into academic education. Other objectives are change of social attitudes towards migrants in local communities; promotion of academic education among immigrants; and social inclusion of students-migrants into their new homelands.
  • Erasmus Scene Network: E+SN is a European cultural project based on theatre and education that is addressed to 3 different target groups: Erasmus students, local students and local refuges. E+SN main goal is establishing a meeting point for persons displaced for different reasons who will be working together with a common aim: the creation of a theatre play. This process will lead to the acquisition of linguistic, communicative, artistic and expressive competencies to improve some aspects of the participants’ integration and employability.

The EU Regional Trust Fund in response to the Syrian Crisis (Madad Fund) supports Syrian refugees and their host communities in Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Turkey and the Western Balkans. It funds HOPES - Higher and Further Education Opportunities and Perspectives for Syrians, which gives Syrian refugees and disadvantaged students from the host countries access to higher education. As many as 400 to 600 full academic scholarships and 4,000 language scholarships are to be awarded to Syrian refugees until 2019.

SPARK is responding to the higher education crisis for Syrian refugees and vulnerable youth residing in Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan and Iraq/KRG. In the MENA region (Middle East and North Africa), SPARK offers three solutions: scholarship packages, language & vocational trainings, and advocacy. 

Writing an academic essay means fashioning a coherent set of ideas into an argument. Because essays are essentially linear—they offer one idea at a time—they must present their ideas in the order that makes most sense to a reader. Successfully structuring an essay means attending to a reader's logic.

The focus of such an essay predicts its structure. It dictates the information readers need to know and the order in which they need to receive it. Thus your essay's structure is necessarily unique to the main claim you're making. Although there are guidelines for constructing certain classic essay types (e.g., comparative analysis), there are no set formula.

Answering Questions:  The Parts of an Essay

A typical essay contains many different kinds of information, often located in specialized parts or sections. Even short essays perform several different operations: introducing the argument, analyzing data, raising counterarguments, concluding. Introductions and conclusions have fixed places, but other parts don't. Counterargument, for example, may appear within a paragraph, as a free-standing section, as part of the beginning, or before the ending. Background material (historical context or biographical information, a summary of relevant theory or criticism, the definition of a key term) often appears at the beginning of the essay, between the introduction and the first analytical section, but might also appear near the beginning of the specific section to which it's relevant.

It's helpful to think of the different essay sections as answering a series of questions your reader might ask when encountering your thesis. (Readers should have questions. If they don't, your thesis is most likely simply an observation of fact, not an arguable claim.)

"What?"  The first question to anticipate from a reader is "what": What evidence shows that the phenomenon described by your thesis is true? To answer the question you must examine your evidence, thus demonstrating the truth of your claim. This "what" or "demonstration" section comes early in the essay, often directly after the introduction. Since you're essentially reporting what you've observed, this is the part you might have most to say about when you first start writing. But be forewarned: it shouldn't take up much more than a third (often much less) of your finished essay. If it does, the essay will lack balance and may read as mere summary or description.

"How?"  A reader will also want to know whether the claims of the thesis are true in all cases. The corresponding question is "how": How does the thesis stand up to the challenge of a counterargument? How does the introduction of new material—a new way of looking at the evidence, another set of sources—affect the claims you're making? Typically, an essay will include at least one "how" section. (Call it "complication" since you're responding to a reader's complicating questions.) This section usually comes after the "what," but keep in mind that an essay may complicate its argument several times depending on its length, and that counterargument alone may appear just about anywhere in an essay.

"Why?"  Your reader will also want to know what's at stake in your claim: Why does your interpretation of a phenomenon matter to anyone beside you? This question addresses the larger implications of your thesis. It allows your readers to understand your essay within a larger context. In answering "why", your essay explains its own significance. Although you might gesture at this question in your introduction, the fullest answer to it properly belongs at your essay's end. If you leave it out, your readers will experience your essay as unfinished—or, worse, as pointless or insular.

Mapping an Essay

Structuring your essay according to a reader's logic means examining your thesis and anticipating what a reader needs to know, and in what sequence, in order to grasp and be convinced by your argument as it unfolds. The easiest way to do this is to map the essay's ideas via a written narrative. Such an account will give you a preliminary record of your ideas, and will allow you to remind yourself at every turn of the reader's needs in understanding your idea.

Essay maps ask you to predict where your reader will expect background information, counterargument, close analysis of a primary source, or a turn to secondary source material. Essay maps are not concerned with paragraphs so much as with sections of an essay. They anticipate the major argumentative moves you expect your essay to make. Try making your map like this:

  • State your thesis in a sentence or two, then write another sentence saying why it's important to make that claim. Indicate, in other words, what a reader might learn by exploring the claim with you. Here you're anticipating your answer to the "why" question that you'll eventually flesh out in your conclusion.
  • Begin your next sentence like this: "To be convinced by my claim, the first thing a reader needs to know is . . ." Then say why that's the first thing a reader needs to know, and name one or two items of evidence you think will make the case. This will start you off on answering the "what" question. (Alternately, you may find that the first thing your reader needs to know is some background information.)
  • Begin each of the following sentences like this: "The next thing my reader needs to know is . . ."  Once again, say why, and name some evidence. Continue until you've mapped out your essay. 

Your map should naturally take you through some preliminary answers to the basic questions of what, how, and why. It is not a contract, though—the order in which the ideas appear is not a rigid one. Essay maps are flexible; they evolve with your ideas.

Signs of Trouble

A common structural flaw in college essays is the "walk-through" (also labeled "summary" or "description"). Walk-through essays follow the structure of their sources rather than establishing their own. Such essays generally have a descriptive thesis rather than an argumentative one. Be wary of paragraph openers that lead off with "time" words ("first," "next," "after," "then") or "listing" words ("also," "another," "in addition"). Although they don't always signal trouble, these paragraph openers often indicate that an essay's thesis and structure need work: they suggest that the essay simply reproduces the chronology of the source text (in the case of time words: first this happens, then that, and afterwards another thing . . . ) or simply lists example after example ("In addition, the use of color indicates another way that the painting differentiates between good and evil").

Copyright 2000, Elizabeth Abrams, for the Writing Center at Harvard University

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